Vitamin D Status in Pregnant Women and Their Newborns in Karaj: A Cross-Sectional Study in Iran

Authors

1 Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Behbahan School of Medicine, Behbahan, Iran.

2 Associated Professor, Neonatal Health Research Center, Research Institute for Children Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Anesthesiology, Alborz University Of Medical Sciences, Alborz, Iran.

4 Nursing Care Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

Abstract

Background
Pregnant women and newborns are at risk of vitamin D deficiency. This study aimed to determine the vitamin D status in pregnant women andtheir newborns in Karaj, Iran.
Materials and Methods
This cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2014 to October 2015. A total of 151 pregnant women and 154 newborns (three twin cases) were included in the study. After obtaining 5 ml venous blood samples from mothers and 5 ml blood from the umbilical cord of newborns, 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured by ELISA method. Serum level of 25(OH)D below 20 ng/ml was considered deficiency, 21-29 ng/ml was considered insufficient and 30-100 ng/ml was considered sufficient. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0.
Results
The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its insufficiency was 93.5% and 6.5% for pregnant women, 94.2% and 3.9% for newborns, respectively. The mean 25(OH)D concentration in pregnant women and newborns was estimated to be 10.649±5.967 ng/ml and 10.574±6.280 ng/ml, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the mean 25(OH)D concentration in mothers and their newborns (r=0.913 and p<0.001); 92.9% of mothers and their newborns had vitamin D deficiency simultaneously.
Conclusion
The results of this study showed that overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiencies (levels

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