The Effect of Inhalation Anesthesia with Hyperventilation and Total Intravenous Anesthesia on Intracranial Pressure Control in Pediatrics with Craniosynostosis Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Authors

Anesthesiologist, Anesthesiology Research Center (ARC), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBMU), Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Background: Intracranial pressure (ICP) control is one of the anesthesiologist challenges in craniosynostosis repair surgery, especially in multiple sutures involvement. The aim of this study was comparing the effect of two anesthesia methods including inhalation with hyperventilation and total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) on ICP control and surgeon satisfaction in pediatrics with craniosynostosis surgery.
Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study, 40 pediatric patients with American society of anesthesiologists (ASA) І-ІІ, 6 months to 2 years old were included. All of the patients were scheduled for craniosynostosis repair at Mofid Children Hospital, Tehran, Iran, in May 2016 to January 2017. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. In hyperventilation group, patients received isoflurane for maintenance of anesthesia and hyperventilation (Paco2=25-30 mmHg) established during surgery. The total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) group received propofol infusion for anesthesia maintenance and Paco2 was maintained 35 mmHg. Intra cranial pressure (ICP) was assessed by surgeon using a 4-point scale. Hemodynamic (mean arterial pressure and heart rate) changes and blood loss were compared between hyperventilation and TIVA groups.
Results: The mean age of patients in hyperventilation group was 10.9±3.25 months and in TIVA group was 8.7 ± 2063 months (p=0.11). Fourteen (70%) patients in hyperventilation group and 6 (30%) patients in TIVA group were male (p=0.74). A significant difference was seen in ICP control and surgical condition between hyperventilation and TIVA groups (p=0.032). ICP was controlled better in hyperventilation group. There was no difference in hemodynamic parameters and blood loss between hyperventilation and TIVA groups (p>0.05).  
Conclusion: This study showed inhalation anesthesia with hyperventilation was more effective than TIVA on ICP control in craniosynostosis surgery.

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