Professor, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
PhD Candidate, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
Professor, Departments of Biostatistics, Faculty of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
Professor, Epidemiology and Biostatistics Department, Occupational Environmental Research Center, Rafsanjan Medical School, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran.
Associate Professor, Research Center of Addiction and Behavioral Sciences, Diabetes Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
Associate Professor, Neurology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
Background: Considering the importance of preventing smoking hookah in adolescents and the lack of a standard questionnaire in this field, this study aimed to develop and validate a Persian Preventing Hookah Smoking (PHS) Questionnaire in adolescents based on the Protection Motivation Theory.
Materials and Methods: After conducting focus groups discussion, reviewing the literature and scientific resources, an initial self-administered questionnaire including 68 questions was designed and then validated. For face validity, the questionnaires were evaluated by 10 experts considering difficulty, inappropriateness, and ambiguity of the phrases. Both quality and quantity methods were used to evaluate the content validity. The content validity ratio (CVR) and the content validity index (CVI) were determined by a group of experts (10 people). Its internal consistency was estimated and its reliability was determined by the test-retest method. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was done using Amos 21.0.
Results: From 68 questions in the initial questionnaire, eventually 64 questions remained in the final questionnaire. The CVR value for most questions, except for 3 questions, was above 0.79 and the CVI value of all questions was above 0.79. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.79-0.91 and the test-retest coefficient was 0.81-0.91. The results of CFA showed the following values, Chi-square (x2): 1254.712, degree of freedom (df): 3.456, adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI): 0.964, the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA): 0.072 which indicates the appropriateness of the tool among Iranian adolescents.
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that this Persian questionnaire about preventing hookah smoking in adolescents based on the Protection Motivation Theory has a good validity and reliability and can be used in investigating about prevention of hookah smoking in adolescents.