Evaluation of the Prevalence of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection and its Clinical Outcomes in Neonates Born in Vali-e-Asr Hospital of Birjand, Iran

Authors

1 Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Birjand Atherosclerosis and Coronary Artery Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences (BUMS), Birjand, South Khorasan Province, Iran.

2 Resident of Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine. Birjand University of Medical Sciences (BUMS), Birjand, South Khorasan Province, Iran.

3 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Infectious Diseases Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences (BUMS), Birjand, South Khorasan Province, Iran.

4 Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cardiovascular Diseases Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences (BUMS), Birjand, South Khorasan Province, Iran.

Abstract

Background
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been known as the most common cause for congenital infections worldwide which can lead to death in fetus and neonates as well as neuropsychiatric deficits. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of congenital CMV infection in newly born neonates and to evaluate the medical outcomes.
Materials and Methods
In this cross-sectional study, 868 neonates were selected using unconditional random sampling in 2017. Neonatal saliva was given on the first or second day of birth using a Dacron swab and tested by PCR for the presence of CMV DNA. All infants with positive CMV infection went through further tests and examinations to evaluate the clinical outcomes.
Results: 787 (90.67%) and 81 (9.33%) births were term and preterm respectively. The PCR test was positive results only in 14 term neonates (1.61%). Thus, the prevalence of CMV infection in term neonates (n=14, 1.61%) was higher than that of preterm infants (n=0), although there was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05). The most common abnormalities were neutropenia (50%, n=4) followed by anemia (37.5%, n=3).
Conclusion
The prevalence of CMV infection in this study (1.61%) was within the global range and there was no association between CMV infection and birth weight, infant gender, and as well ae neonatal type. The frequency of symptomatic neonates at birth in this study was higher than the average global range, but almost the same as in developing countries.

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