Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
Physician, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
Specialist of Nuclear Medicine, Nuclear Medicine Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Science, Mashhad, Iran.
Fellowship of pediatrics intensive care, Department of Pediatrics, Mashhad University of Medical Science, Mashhad, Iran.
Nursing Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ) is a remarkable tool to assess impairments in the mother-infant bonding. The purpose of the present study was to review the factorial structure of the PBQ cross different versions.
Materials and Methods
The search strategy was implemented on databases of Medline (via PubMed), Scopus, Cochran library and Web of Science through electronic databases. The quality assessment was fulfilled by COSMIN checklist.
Results: The four factors were identified in original English version of PBQ. Theses consisted of "impaired bounding", "rejection and anger", "anxiety about care of the baby", and "risk of abuse". Three-factor-solution was confirmed by other English versions. In the Italian version of PBQ, three factors emerged including "annoyance and anger toward the infant", "detachment and rejection" and "anxiety about infant care". In the Spanish version of the PBQ, four factors including "impaired bonding", "anxiety about care", "lack of enjoyment and affection for the baby", and "rejection and risk of abuse". Three studies assessed factorial structure of Japanese version of PBQ. In the first Japanese version, four factors with 14 items were emerged including "impaired bonding ", "rejection and anger" and "anxiety about care", and "lack of affection". In second adapted Japanese version, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) identified a three factor solution: "mother's annoyance with anger toward their baby", "lack of affection" and" rejection and fear". The third version identified one-single solution. In the German version, one single factor emerged that explained 31 of the total variance.
Original English version of PBQ was not confirmed in Japanese, Italian, Spanish and other English versions.