MRI Evaluation of the Brain in Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder; How to Hear the Whispers Early?

Authors

1 Assistant Professor of Radiology, Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, El Minia University, El Minia, Egypt.

2 Radiology department. Faculty of medicine,. El Minia university- El Minia- Egypt

3 Lecturer of Pediatric Neurology, Pediatric Neurology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, El Minia University, El Minia, Egypt.

Abstract

Background
Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder of the brain characterized by periods of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. We aimed to evaluate the role of MRI of the brain in children with ADHD.
Materials and Methods
This prospective study included 100 children with clinical diagnosis of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder according to the criteria of IDC-10. There were 79 males and 21females. Their ages ranged between 3 and 14 years old. A cohort of patients were referred from pediatric neurology unit to radiology department in El Minia University hospital, El Minia, Egypt, in the period between January 2017 and December 2017. All of them underwent MRI evaluation of the brain after approval of the ethical committee of our institution and completion of informed consent.
Results
MRI examination was positive in 66/100 patients and negative in 34 /100 patients. Corpus callosum dysgenesis was the most common finding in 19/66 patients, followed by temporal lobe pathology in 14/66 patients. Fronto-parietal or cerebellar atrophy was found in 11/66 patients. Tuber cinereum lesions, hippocampus sclerosis, heterotopia, pachygyria, hemimegalencephaly, Joubert syndrome and pineal cyst were a spectrum of findings among the remaining positive patients.
Conclusion
MRI of the brain in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder will be the pivot for diagnosis. Not all patients had cerebellar or fronto-parietal atrophy as presumed before. Temporal lobe, corpus callosum and tuber cinereum must be looked for carefully. 

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