Anaphylaxis Associated with Peanuts and Nuts in Late Mexican Adolescents: A Population Based Study

Authors

1 Instituto de Salud Pública, Universidad Veracruzana. Av. Luis Castelazo Ayala s/n, Industrial Ánimas, C. P. 91190. Xalapa, Veracruz, México.

2 Servicio de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica, Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Dr. Juan I. Menchaca". Salvador Quevedoy Zubieta 750, Independencia Oriente, C. P. 44340. Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

3 Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara. Sierra Mojada 950, Independencia Oriente, C.P.44340. Guadalajara, Jalisco, México AND Programa Interinstitucional para el Fortalecimiento de la Investigación y el Posgrado del Pacifico. Programa Delfín. Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Ciudad de la Cultura, C. P. 6300. Tepic, Nayarit, Mexico.

4 Colegio Mexicano de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica. Sagitario 4793, La Calma, C. P. 45070. Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

5 Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara. Sierra Mojada 950, Independencia Oriente, C.P.44340. Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

Abstract

Background: There is a lack of information regarding anaphylaxis that is triggered by the peanut and nuts in countries with emerging economies. We aimed to identify the factors that are related to the prevalence of secondary anaphylaxis that results from ingesting peanuts or nuts.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in which we applied a structured questionnaire to a random sample of 1992 adolescents, aged 15 to 18 years. After identifying those subjects with presence of adverse symptoms after food intake, we then asked if this was due to the ingestion of the peanuts or nuts. Factors associated with anaphylaxis were identified through the odds ratio estimation using logistic regression in a multivariate analysis model.
Results: The prevalence of global anaphylaxis caused by the peanuts and nuts was 0.9%, n=17 (95% CI: 0.5% to 1.4%); 0.6%, n=12 (95% CI: 0.3% to 1.1%) with any type of nut, and 0.3%, n=7 (95% CI: 0.2% to 0.7%) with the peanut; anaphylaxis caused exclusively by the peanut was recorded at 0.2% (95% CI: 0.1% to 0.6%). Notably, one case of anaphylaxis was triggered by five types of nuts (almond, pecan, Brazilian nut, cashew, and pistachio), another by 4 types (hazelnut, peanut, walnut, pecan, and cashew), there were 9 cases that were prompted by only one food (5 peanut, 2 cashew, 1 chestnut, 1 almond). The only factor found to be associated with anaphylaxis was a personal history of pollen allergy, odds ratio: 10.12 (p = 0.046).
Conclusion:
The prevalence of anaphylaxis induced by peanuts or nuts in the Mexican population varies from 0.5 to 1.4%; and the personal history of pollen allergy was the only associated factor with anaphylaxis.

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