Bone Mineral Density and Cystic Fibrosis: A Review

Authors

1 Pediatric Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Mycobacteriology Research Centre (MRC), National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran AND Department of Biotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease Research Center (GLDRC), Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

4 Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

5 Mycobacteriology Research Centre (MRC), National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common progressive genetic disorder among children which involves lungs, kidneys, intestine and liver. Apart from the significance of genetic factors, various environmental factors particularly bone mineral density are directly associated with CF. Remarkably, bone disease is appeared as a routine and common trait in long term CF survivors which implies that environmental parameters including calcium and vitamin D intake as well as drug inducement are the most important risk factors causing low bone mineral density. Conspicuously, absolute and notable treatment of cystic fibrosis associated to bone disorder must involve investigating the risk factors including the reduced intake of certain vitamins and minerals due to pancreatic inadequacy, modified hormone production, severe and chronic lung infection with increased ranges of bone function cytokines for a weak bone health situation. In this review, focus is on these considerable factors alongside the genetic factors in cystic fibrosis.  

Keywords