Acute Respiratory Tract Infection (ARI) in Children Under-five Years; Study of Prevalence, Risk Factors and Outcome in Minia University Children Hospital, Egypt

Authors

1 Departments of Pediatrics, El-Minia University, Egypt.

2 Departments Radiology, El-Minia University, Egypt .

3 Departments of Clinical Pathology, El-Minia University, Egypt.

Abstract

Background: Acute respiratory infection still the most a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five in many countries. We aimed to assess the incidence and risk factors predicting the outcome of ARI.
Methods: Hospital based case study conducted at Minia University Children Hospital< Egypt from December 2016 till December 2018. Children from2 months till five years and presented by criteria of ALRI according to WHO criteria were included in the study and evaluated for clinical presentation, risk factors and outcome. Routine investigations such as CBC, CRP and chest X-ray done for all cases.
Results: Out of 586 child admitted to pulmonology unit only 215 (36.7%) fulfill the WHO criteria of ARI program, with higher incidence among infants aged less than 6 months (48.8%) and male children (58.6%), majority of children had anemia (87%) and PEM (60%), according to WHO criteria we found that 18.6% of cases had pneumonia and 49.7% of cases had severe pneumonia. Need of change in antibiotics, duration of stay and outcomes were significantly associated in relation to pneumonia severity (p=0.04, p=0.03 and p=0.01, respectively); while need for oxygen therapy was highly significant (p=0.001) and sepsis was the most frequent cause of deaths and mortality rate was 9.3% (20 children).

Conclusions:Young age, malnutrition and poor socioeconomic status play the cornerstone in the morbidity and mortality from respiratory infection in children, ARI burden and severity can be reduced by effective management of malnutrition, improving the living standards and proper health education programs.

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