Acute Respiratory Tract Infection in Children under Five- Year; Study of Prevalence, Risk Factors and Outcome in Minia University Children’s Hospital, Egypt

Authors

1 Department of Pediatrics, El-Minia University, Egypt.

2 Departments Radiology, El-Minia University, Egypt .

3 Departments of Clinical Pathology, El-Minia University, Egypt.

Abstract

Background
Acute respiratory infection is still the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five in many countries. We aimed to assess the incidence and risk factors predicting the outcome of Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI).
Materials and Methods
This is a hospital-based case study conducted at Minia University Children’s Hospital, Egypt from December 2016 until December 2018. Children from 2 months till five years and presented by criteria of ALRI according to WHO criteria were included in the study and evaluated for clinical presentation, risk factors and outcome. Routine investigations such as CBC, CRP and chest X-ray were done for all cases.                           
Results
Out of 586 children admitted to pulmonology unit only 215 (36.7%) fulfill the WHO criteria of ARI program, with higher incidence among infants below 6 months (48.8%) and male children (58.6%), majority of children had anemia (87%), and PEM (60%), according to WHO criteria we found that 18.6% of cases had pneumonia and 49.7% of cases had severe pneumonia. Need of change in antibiotics, duration of stay and outcomes were significantly associated in relation to pneumonia severity (p=0.04, p=0.03 and p=0.01, respectively); while need for oxygen therapy was highly significant (p=0.001) and 15% required mechanical ventilation. Lobar pneumonia (32.5%) was the most common diagnosis and sepsis was the most frequent cause of death and mortality rate was 9.3% (n=20).      
Conclusion
Young age, malnutrition and poor socioeconomic status play an important role in in the morbidity; effective management of malnutrition, improving the living standards and proper health education programs, can reduce mortality from respiratory infection in children, ARI burden and severity.

Keywords