Placental Calcification and Vitamin D Deficiency in Low-Risk Pregnant Women

Authors

1 Department of Community and Family Medicine, School of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran AND Preventive Medicine and Public Health Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

3 Medical Student, School of medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

4 Resident of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

5 Associate Professor of Pathology, School of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

Abstract

Background: The placental calcification is often considered as a physiologic aging process of the placenta but it may be accompanied with the altered levels of vitamin D (vit D). The aim of this study was to evaluate association between placental calcification and vit D in low risk pregnant women. 
Materials and Methods: In a case-control study eighty otherwise healthy pregnant women with a gestational age between 37-41 weeks were recruited and divided into the case (n=40), and control (n=40) groups (based on the result of the ultrasonography and according to the Grannum grading). The serum of calcium in pregnant women and vit D level in cord blood were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Neonatal anthropometric values were measured after birth, too.
Results: Most of the pregnant women (n=74, 92%) showed either insufficiency or deficiency of vitamin D in cord while calcium levels were normal in both groups. Serum calcium showed a significant difference between two groups [p=0.042, odds ratio (OR): 2.006, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.024-3.928], but vitamin D did not (p=0.144, OR: 1.048, 95%CI: 0.984-1.115). Vitamin D level had a significant relationship with calcification of the placenta as well as maternal age, gestational age, and birth weight.
Conclusion: It is better to measure calcium and vitamin D in mothers with calcified placenta because the vitamin D level had a significant relationship with placental calcification and we recommend the administration of vitamin D in pregnant women.

Keywords