Risk factors for low birth weight: a population-based case control study

Document Type: original article

Authors

1 Associate Professor of Complementary and Chinese Medicine, Persian and Complementary Medicine Faculty, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

2 PhD Candidate in Epidemiology, Khorasan Razavi Province Health Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran .

3 Environmental Health Engineering, Khorasan Razavi Province Health Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran .

4 Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, MashhadUniversity of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

5 Associate Professor, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

6 Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

10.22038/ijp.2019.14060

Abstract

Background: Complications caused by low birth weight (LBW) are among the most common causes of neonatal mortality and future problems during adulthood. This study aimed to identify the risk factors for LBW.
Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 7,382 LBW neonates and 36,911 healthy neonates. Data were collected from the SINA electronic health record system. Data analysis was performed in STATA using multivariate logistic regression with a confidence interval of 95%.
Results: In this study, the risk of LBW was increased in people living in rural areas, compared to urban areas, by 9% (confidence interval 1.01-1.18), in illiterate individuals by 4.60% (confidence interval 4.05-5.23), in employed individuals by 2.40% (confidence interval 2.20-2.62), in female newborns (confidence interval 1.04-1.16), in mothers with a history of miscarriage by 74% (confidence interval 1.09-2.75), in women with premature delivery by 34.09% (confidence interval 29.17-39.84), in women with a history of multiple gestations by 22.30% (confidence interval 18.71-26.59), in women with a history of drug consumption by 2.01% (confidence interval 1.83-2.21), in mothers not consuming folic acid and iron by 24% (confidence interval 1.10-1.39) and 9% (confidence interval 1.00-1.19). On the other hand, it decreased by lack of consumption of multivitamins and vitamin D by 1% (confidence interval 0.88-1.11) and 29% (confidence interval 0.61-0.82), respectively.
Conclusion: According to the results of the study, increasing prenatal care, educating mothers, having an appropriate diet and taking supplements can play an important role in reducing the risk of LBW.

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