Risk Factors of Low Birth Weight Infants: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

Authors

1 Associate Professor of Complementary and Chinese Medicine, Persian and Complementary Medicine Faculty, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

2 PhD Candidate in Epidemiology, Khorasan Razavi Province Health Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran .

3 Environmental Health Engineering, Khorasan Razavi Province Health Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran .

4 Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, MashhadUniversity of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

5 Associate Professor, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

6 Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Abstract

Background: Complications caused by low birth weight (LBW) are among the most common causes of neonatal mortality and future problems during adulthood. This study aimed to identify the risk factors for LBW.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences from 2017 to 2018 on 7,382 LBW neonates and 36,911 healthy neonates. Data were collected from the SINA electronic health record system. Data analysis was performed in STATA version 12.0. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were applied to determine the association between independent variables and LBW.
Results: The prevalence of low birth weight was 5.88 infants per 100. In this study, the risk of LBW was increased in people living in rural areas, compared to urban areas, by 9% (95% CI: 1.01-1.18), in illiterate individuals by 4.60% (95% CI: 4.05-5.23), in employed individuals by 2.40% (95% CI: 2.20-2.62), in female newborns (95% CI: 1.04-1.16), in mothers with a history of miscarriage by 74% (95% CI: 1.09-2.75), in women with premature delivery by 34.09% (95% CI: 29.17-39.84), in women with a history of multiple gestations by 22.30% (95% CI: 18.71-26.59), in women with a history of drug consumption by 2.01% (95% CI: 1.83-2.21), in mothers not consuming folic acid and iron by 24% (95% CI: 1.10-1.39) and 9% (95% CI: 1.00-1.19). On the other hand, it decreased by lack of consumption of multivitamins and vitamin D by 1% (95% CI:  0.88-1.11), and 29% (95% CI: 0.61-0.82), respectively.
Conclusion: According to the results, educating mothers, increasing prenatal care, having an appropriate diet and taking supplements can play an important role in reducing the risk of LBW.

Keywords