Using social cognitive theory: predictors of Self-Care Behaviors among Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes (T1DM)

Document Type: original article

Authors

1 MSc Student in Health Education. Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

2 Ph.D. in Health Education and Promotion. Department of Health Education & Promotion. School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

3 Professor of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

4 Department of Biostatistics, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

5 Associate Professor, Head of Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Abstract

Abstract
Background and Aim: Investigating the factors affecting the acceptance of self-care behaviors in diabetic adolescents is necessary to identify and enhance the factors affecting the behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine the predicting factors related to the self-care behaviors among adolescents with type 1 diabetic using social cognitive theory.
Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study 200 patients with type 1 diabetes were studied. Simple random sampling was conducted. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire that was based on the cognitive-social theory constructs including questions about demographic characteristics, self-care behaviors and theoretical constructs. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and hierarchical multiple regression analysis to determine the predictive rate of self-care behaviors by social cognitive theory constructs in SPSS software.
Findings: The age range of patients was between 10 and 19 years old with an average age of 17.26±3.69. The regression model showed that the constructs of social cognitive theory (self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and goal setting) could explain well the constructs of self-care behavior (including physical activity and blood glucose controlling behaviors) which is statistically meaningful(p=0.00) But the results were not meaningful in nutrition (p=0.016).
Conclusion: Considering the growing trend of diabetes, it is necessary that public health practitioners focus on nutrition and lifestyle changes and improving health among people with diabetes through the promotion of healthy behaviors, as well as bringing them back to normal life as soon as possible.

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