An Exploratory Study of Predictors of Self-Care Behavior in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes based on Social Cognitive Theory

Authors

1 MSc Student in Health Education. Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

2 Ph.D. in Health Education and Promotion. Department of Health Education & Promotion. School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

3 Professor of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

4 Department of Biostatistics, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

5 Associate Professor, Head of Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Abstract

Background: Diabetes Mellitus is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, bringing enormous costs to communities and the health care system. Self-care behavior has a major influence on type 1 diabetes (T1D) health outcomes, and with successful management, children and adolescents with T1D can lead long and healthy lives. This study aimed to investigate the predictors of self-care behavior in adolescents with T1D based on social cognitive theory (SCT).
Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study in adolescents with diabetes mellitus type 1. A self-administered questionnaire based on SCT and self-care behavior was completed by 200 girls and boys, aged between 14 and 19 years old in Isfahan Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Iran. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and hierarchical multiple regression analysis in SPSS software version 23.0.
Results: The mean age of the participants was (16.61+2.67 years). The majority of participants were woman (n=123) and single (n=152). The results of regression analysis showed that SCT constructs (self-efficacy, outcome expectations and self-regulation) were able to explain self-care behavior significantly (R2=0.4, p<0.001), and the self-regulation was the strongest predictor of self-care behavior (β=0.5, p <0.001).
Conclusion: Considering the explanation of self-care behavior by SCT constructs in the present study, and the effective role of self-regulation in explaining self-care behavior in adolescents with diabetes mellitus type 1, it is recommended to consider strategies for improving the self-regulation in these adolescents in future interventions.

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