Risk Factors for Neonatal Mortality at St Camille Hospital in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Authors

1 Saint Camille Hospital of Ouagadougou (HOSCO) 09 BP 444 Ouagadougou 09 Burkina Faso AND Faculty of Medicine, University Saint Thomas d’Aquin (USTA), 06 BP 10212 Ouagadougou 01, Burkina Faso.

2 Pietro Annigoni Biomolecular Research Centre (CERBA)/LABIOGENE, University Joseph Ki-Zerbo, 01 BP 364 Ouagadougou 01, Burkina Faso, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, West Africa.

3 Saint Camille Hospital of Ouagadougou (HOSCO) 09 BP 444 Ouagadougou 09 Burkina Faso.

4 CHUP-CDG Department of medical pediatrics, BP 1198 Ouagadougou 01 Burkina Faso; University Joseph Ki-Zerbo, Training and Research Unit in Health Sciences (UFR/SDS) 03 BP 7021 Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso.

5 Saint Camille Hospital of Ouagadougou (HOSCO) 09 BP 444 Ouagadougou 09 Burkina Faso AND Faculty of Medicine, University Saint Thomas d’Aquin (USTA), 06 BP 10212 Ouagadougou 01, Burkina Faso AND Pietro Annigoni Biomolecular Research Centre (CERBA)/LABIOGENE, University Joseph Ki-Zerbo, 01 BP 364 Ouagadougou 01, Burkina Faso, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, West Africa.

Abstract

Background: Neonatal mortality remains a public health concern in developing countries such as Burkina Faso. Improving the survival rate of newborns requires a good knowledge of the current situation. This study aimed at determining the risk factors for neonatal mortality in the Neonatology Department of Saint Camille Hospital of Ouagadougou (HOSCO - Hôpital Saint Camille de Ouagadougou).
Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective, descriptive and analytical study that included all newborns hospitalized in the neonatology department, at St Camille Hospital, in Burkina Faso from January 1 to December 31, 2017. Total of 710 records of hospitalized newborns in 2017 were analyzed. Among them our study focused on cases of death.
Results: The neonatology department registered 246 deaths out of 710 hospitalizations, representing a mortality rate of 34.6%, of whom 194 (78.8%) were preterm infants and 52 (11.2%) were term newborns. Among the deceased newborns, 88% had a low birth weight and the sex ratio was 0.8. November was the most fatal period (12.6%). Prematurity and respiratory distress were the main reasons for referral. Prematurity (76.4%), asphyxia (51.2%) and neonatal infection (27.2%) were the top 3 diagnoses at admission. The leading cause of death was respiratory distress (89.8%). All the newborns have been hospitalized within 24 hours of life and the average time to death in the unit was 3 days and 54% of deaths occurred within 72 hours of hospitalization.
Conclusion: Mortality rate is higher among preterm infants while it is relatively low among full-term newborns in our facility. Prematurity, asphyxia and neonatal infection remain the main risk factors associated with neonatal mortality.

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