Student Research Committee, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
Department of Pediatric Neurology, Ghaem Medical Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
Department of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
Acute Flaccid Myelitis (AFM), a polio-like paralysis in children no older than 21, has recently reemerged and increasing numbers of such cases have been reported worldwide since 2012. Accurate and early diagnosis of this condition could help with better management of the disease. A 9- year- old girl with chief complaint of headache, fever and vomiting was subsequently affected by an acute paralysis in upper left limb followed by lower limb paralysis. An enhanced signal in T2 parallel to C2-C7, involving the central cord section in Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spinal cord and an asymmetrical neuropathy pattern reported in Electromyography (EMG), and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) tests led to diagnosis of AFM. Lack of efficacy of administered Intravenous immunoglobulin and no evidence of spastic paralysis in the three months follow up of the patient helped with definite elimination of Guillain-Barre´ syndrome (GBS) as the possible cause, and confirmed AFM diagnosis. Unfortunately, there is no specific treatment currently available for AFM.