Effects of Gain- and Loss-Framed Messages on Preventive Nutrition Behaviors of Osteoporosis in Iranian Female Students: A Text Messaging Intervention

Authors

1 Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Background:Adopting healthy life style in children may protect them against osteoporosis in later life. This study was done to determine the effectiveness of gain- framed versus loss-framed using mobile phones short-messages service (SMS) intervention in promoting knowledge, attitude and preventive nutrition behaviors of osteoporosis among a sample of Iranian female students.
Materials and Method:In this quasi-experimental study,345 female students in Semnan, Iran were randomly selected and assigned to either intervention group 1 receiving gain-framed text messages, n=115), intervention group 2 (receiving loss-framed text messages, n=115), and control group (no receiving text messages, n=115). Knowledge, attitude and dietary behaviors related to osteoporosis prevention were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire before and one month after the delivery of the framed information via SMS. Seventy two short messages that emphasized the benefits of adopting the behavior (n=35) and the costs of non adopting it (n=35) have been sent to the participants’ phones in intervention group 1 and 2, respectively during the 35-day intervention period.
Results:The age of participants in the three groups was 12 years.They were studying in the seventh grade. After the intervention, the mean scores of knowledge (2.32±0.60, p<0.001), attitude (1.52±0.60, p=0.03) and adopting the preventive nutrition behaviors of osteoporosis (1.30±0.58, p=0.05) variables in the intervention group 1 had a significant increase compared to the intervention group 2.
Conclusion:The results of the study showed that gain-framed text messages significantly improved adopting osteoporosis preventive nutrition behaviors than loss framed text messages.

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