Relationship of smartphone addiction with Self-esteem and Self-Consciousness among in High School Students the first year of high school Girls' Students

Document Type: original article


1 Instructor, Educational Sciences and Psychology, Payame Noor University, PO Box 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran.

2 Ph.D, Educational Technology, Instructor, Educational Sciences and Psychology Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Instructor, Psychology department, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran.



Background: Adolescent smartphone addiction has received increased attention in recent years, and self-esteem and self-consciousness have been found to be a protective factor in an adolescent smartphone. However, this study aimed to investigate the relationship of smartphone addiction with self-esteem and self-consciousness among the first high school girls Students
Methods: Samples of this cross-sectional sample included all the first year of high school girls' students in Tehran, Iran 2019-20. The formula suggested by Krejcie and Morgan was used to measure the size of the sample (n=140). Stratified sampling method was used for the collection of samples. The scale of smartphone addiction, the scale of cooper smith self-esteem, and the self-consciousness scale – revised were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 23.0.
Findings: The total sample of study was 140 girls' students with mean age = 15.81 years, SD = 0.63. The M& SD students' self-esteem was (34.58± 11.81). The correlation analyses indicated that self-esteem and self-consciousness (MR = -0.423 and p <0.004, p <0.05) were negative significant correlation with girl students' smartphone addiction. `Moreover, these results showed that there is a negative significant correlation between self-esteem and self-consciousness with smartphone addiction (p <0.05). The correlation coefficient between self-esteem and smartphone addiction was (r = 0.394 and p = 0.002, p <0.05). Moreover, the correlation coefficient between self-consciousness and smartphone addiction was (r = -0.293 and p = 0.02, p <0.05).
Conclusion: Based on the regression equation with the mentioned standard coefficients, self-esteem and self-consciousness had a positive effect on smartphone addiction for students. The findings also show that the best predictor for smartphone addiction was among self-esteem predictors as compared with self-consciousness.