Relationship between the Exposure to Magnetic Fields during Pregnancy and Risk of Abortion: A Review Article

Authors

1 Assistant Professor of Genecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

2 Resident of Genecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

3 Resident of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

10.22038/ijp.2020.50416.4013

Abstract

Background
Exposure to electro-magnetic fields is a risk factor for abortion. We aimed to review the relationship between exposure to magnetic fields during pregnancy and the risk of abortion.
Materials and Methods: Two independent researchers screened the articles with related keywords including: "Radiofrequency", "RF", "RF-EMFs", "Phone", "Mobile phone", "Cell phone", "Electromagnetic field", "Electromagnetic waves", "EMF"," EMW", "Magnetic Field", "Abortion, and "Miscarriage". Following electronic databases: Scopus, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science and Medline were searched without time and language restrictions from inception up to March, 2020.
Results: In the first study, there was a significant difference in the magnitude of Extremely Low-Frequency Electro-Magnetic Fields (ELF-EMF) between the two groups in the participants´ houses. In the second study, the relationship between the miscarriage risks with high Magnetic Field exposure was evaluated among pregnant women by eliminating various confounding factors. In the third study, there was a relationship between miscarriage risk and prenatal exposure to the highest magnetic field, about 16 mG (95% CI: 1.2-2.7). In the fourth study, the research units exposed to higher MF levels were 2.72 times more at risk of miscarriage compared to the women exposed to lower MF levels. In the fifth study, a significant difference was observed between the two groups regarding the magnitude of ELF-EMF in the participants´ houses. A significant likelihood of miscarriage in women who exposed to a significant level of the electromagnetic wave was observed; however, this relationship was not confirmed by the Wald test.
Conclusion
The effect of exposure on the risk of abortion depends on the distance from the source of radiation and the intensity of the frequency of the waves.

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