Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Nutrition, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.
School of Medicine, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, Iran
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Nutrition, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran
Background: Postpartum depression (PPD) can have serious consequences for the mother and infant. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of postnatal depression and associated sociocultural, obstetrics and child related factors among women.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 290 women from 10 public health centers were of Bushehr, Iran, selected through stratified random sampling. Data were collected using a validated self- administered questionnaire from women within 12 weeks postpartum in 2019. PPD was assessed using Edinburgh Post Natal Depression Scale (EPDS), and score of >12 was considered having PPD.
Results: The mean age of the respondents was 28.48 ± 5.50 years. A majority of them were housewife (80%). The prevalence of depression was 24.1% in 12 weeks after delivery. Higher social support was associated with lower PPD [OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.95; p<0.001]. The risk of developing PPD was 4.84 times higher in mothers with cesarean section [OR: 4.84, 95% CI: 1.89, 12.36; p =0.001], 5.19 times higher with preterm birth [OR: 5.19, 95% CI: 1.44, 18.27; p =0.01], 4.47 times higher with a history of depression [OR: 4.47, 95% CI: 1.40, 14.24; p =0.009]. The women who were satisfied with their marital relationship [OR: 0.16, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.96; p=0.04], and the baby's sleep habits [OR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.82; p =0.01] were less likely to suffer from PPD.
Conclusion: Based on the results, poor social support, poor marital relationship, cesarean section, and preterm birth, positive history of depression, and adverse baby's sleep habits were strongly associated with PPD. The vulnerable women should monitor their mental status and should be educated about the effective intervention strategies.