Diagnostic Challenges in Celiac Disease

Author

Professor of pediatric Gastroenterology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Abstract

1. The most important challenge in diagnosis of celiac disease is not-performing the diagnostic tests in suspected persons. Because of multi-organ damage and multiple manifestations of disease, diagnosis of celiac disease may be delayed. It seems general physicians should be aware about uncommon presentations of disease and indications of celiac tests.
2. The second most important challenge is in patients with suspected disease but negative serologic tests. In these cases evaluating of HLA can be useful.
3. The third challenge is in cases with positive serologic tests but negative histopathological findings. There may be false positive serologic response or consumption of gluten before testing. We recommend introduction of gluten for at least 3 mo and re- endoscopy and if diagnosis is equivocal HLA-typing for DQ8 and DQ2 should be done.
4. The forth challenge is about performing endoscopy. Based on guideline from ESPGHAN if there are typical clinical manifestations of celiac disease, Anti-TTG more than ten times UPN, positive Anti-EMA and HLA DQ2, performing endoscopy may not be necessary, but many physicians don’t agree with this idea.
5. In people who are genetically predisposed to celiac disease antibody levels may be fluctuating thus endoscopy with biopsy should be done in these patients.
6. In children lower than 2years, Anti- TTG and Anti –EMA have low sensitivity. we recommend Anti-TTG and Anti-DGP in these patients.
7. Resolution of symptoms after gluten free diet is not necessarily a feature of celiac disease. This condition may be seen in patients with IBS or non-celiac gluten sensitivity.

Keywords


1. The most important challenge in diagnosis of celiac disease is not-performing the diagnostic tests in suspected persons. Because of multi-organ damage and multiple manifestations of disease, diagnosis of celiac disease may be delayed. It seems general physicians should be aware about uncommon presentations of disease and indications of celiac tests.

2. The second most important challenge is in patients with suspected disease but negative serologic tests. In these cases evaluating of HLA can be useful.

3. The third challenge is in cases with positive serologic tests but negative histopathological findings. There may be false positive serologic response or consumption of gluten before testing. We recommend introduction of gluten for at least 3 mo and re- endoscopy and if diagnosis is equivocal HLA-typing for DQ8 and DQ2 should be done.

4. The forth challenge is about performing endoscopy. Based on guideline from ESPGHAN if there are typical clinical manifestations of celiac disease, Anti-TTG more than ten times UPN, positive Anti-EMA and HLA DQ2, performing endoscopy may not be necessary, but many physicians don’t agree with this idea.

5. In people who are genetically predisposed to celiac disease antibody levels may be fluctuating thus endoscopy with biopsy should be done in these patients.

6. In children lower than 2years, Anti- TTG and Anti –EMA have low sensitivity. we recommend Anti-TTG and Anti-DGP in these patients.

7. Resolution of symptoms after gluten free diet is not necessarily a feature of celiac disease. This condition may be seen in patients with IBS or non-celiac gluten sensitivity.