Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacological Research Center of Medicinal Plants, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
Cell and Molecular Biotechnology Research Group, Institute of Biotechnology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
Nowadays, due to drug abuse the world community has suffered considerable losses, resulting from productivity loss; transmission of infectious diseases; physical, mental, social and family problems and disabilities; increased crime rates; the need for providing health care practices; threatened personal safety; and decreased life quality. Crack, a cheap, highly addictive derivative of heroin unique to Iran, is rife in the poorer quartes of Irans big cities. Home-produced crystal-meth. Known as shishe, meaning glass, has also entered the market. It is favoured by many poor and disheartened young men and by many middle-class women trying to stay thin. Harmful of these agents is clear. In this study we investigated effects of them on stem cells in comparison with ethanol.
Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from rat and human adipose tissue then exposed to crystal (60-2000µg/ml), crack (60-2000µg/ml), and ethanol (1.5%-50%).
After 1 h microscopic observation showed that high concentration of crystal and crack changed shape of cells. After 24 h we determined viability of cells by MTT assay. MTT assay confirmed our microscopic observation. At high doses (1000 and 2000µg/ml, p<0.001) cells were died completely with crystal and crack while lower concentrations of these agents had less effect. Also ethanol did not have cytotoxicity at doses of 1.5-5%, it decreased viability at high doses (>5%).
In result, moreover theses agent affected on different organs, they destroyed cells. It can be suggested the loss of these cells may have a role in lake of regeneration of damaged tissues.
Keyword: Adipose tissue, Crack, Crystal, Mesenchymal stem cells.