Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children:A Short Review and Literature

Authors

1 Midwifery MSc, Insructor, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Iran.

2 Ibn-e- Sina Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

3 Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

4 Students Research Committee, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Abstract

Introduction
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition that affects millions of children and often persists into adulthood. ADHD includes a combination of problems, such as difficulty sustaining attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. ADHD is estimated to affect about 6 to 7 percent of people aged 18 and under when diagnosed via the DSM-IV criteria. Hyperkinetic disorder when diagnosed via the ICD-10 criteria give rates of between 1 to 2 percent in this age group. Children in North America appear to have a higher rate of ADHD than children in Africa and the Middle East - however, this may be due to differing methods of diagnosis used in different areas of the world. If the same diagnostic methods are used rates are more or less the same between countries.

Keywords


Introduction

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder of childhood and adolescence characterized by a pattern of extreme pervasive, persistent and debilitating inattention, overactivity and impulsivity. It is believed to be one of the most common reasons for mental health referrals to family physicians, aediatricians,paediatric neurologists and child and adolescent psychiatrists. Although originally thought to remit during childhood, the symptoms of ADHD have also been shown to persist in patients through adolescence and into adulthood . The disorder is often chronic, with one third to one half of those affected retaining the condition into adulthood . It interferes with many areas of normal development and functioning in a child’s life. Children with ADHD are more likely than their peers to experience educational underachievement, social isolation and antisocial behaviour during the school years and to go on to have significant difficulties in the post-school years (1). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood. The worldwide prevalence in children ≤18 years has been estimated at 5.3% in a systematic review of 102 studies from all continents, with a majority from North America and Europe (