Decomposition Socioeconomic Inequality in Infant Mortality in EMRO Countries

Authors

1 Assistant professor, Department of Management and Health Economics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 School of Health Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Health Management and Economics Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

4 Department of Management and Health Economics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Introduction
The preservation and promotion of the health in children who are one of the most vulnerable parts in any society has an important role in the health system of each country. In this study, the socioeconomic factors affecting the infant mortality in Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office (EMRO) countries have been examined during the time period from 2000 to 2013.
Materials and Methods
This study was a panel data type estimated by using the method of random effects. The Likelihood ratio (LR) and Wooldridge tests have been applied to investigate the hetereoskedasticity and autocorrelation. The data used in this study have been collected from the websites of the World Bank and the World Health Organization (WHO). The studied panel has been evaluated by Feasible Generalized Least Squares (FGLS) method due to the existence of hetereoskedasticity.
Results
The results showed that the variables of per capita national income logarithm, vaccination coverage of Measles, the education level of 15 to 24-year-old women, per capita health expenditures, and the accessibility of improved health facilities, had an inverse association with the mortality rate of children. All variables except vaccination coverage for Measles had significant association. The per capita national income also had the greatest impact in decreasing the mortality rate of children.
Conclusion
The findings indicate that socioeconomic inequality in infant mortality in EMRO countries is determined not only by health system functions but also by factors beyond the scope of health authorities such as education system, and economic variables.

Keywords