Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
Students Research Committee, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
5.9 million children under age five died in 2015, 16 000 every day. Globally, under-five mortality rate has decreased by 53%, from an estimated rate of 91 deaths per 1000 live births in 1990 to 43 deaths per 1000 live births in 2015. The average annual rate of reduction in under-five mortality has accelerated from 1.8% a year over the period 1990–2000 to 3.9% for 2000–2015 , but remains insufficient to reach MDG- 4. About 19 000 fewer children died every day in 2015 than in 1990, the baseline year for measuring progress. The biggest challenge remains in the period at or around birth. A massive 45% of under-five deaths occur in the neonatal period – the first 28 days of life. Prematurity, pneumonia, complications during labour and delivery, diarrhoea, sepsis, and malaria are leading causes of death for children under 5 years old. Nearly half of all under-five deaths are associated with undernutrition.