School-Based Smoking Prevention Programs for Middle School Students in Nowshahr- Iran: a Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors

1 Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

2 Department of Public Health, School of Health, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

3 Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Departments of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.

5 Departments of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran

6 Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Background: Smoking among youths is a main public health concern, and detecting predictors of smoking is essential for designing preventive programs. Any interventional program should plan with highlighting on behavioral change models and based on operative interventional program. So, this study aimed to investigate school-based smoking prevention programs for middle school students in Nowshahr, Iran.
Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental study was performed with 280 male students aged 15-17 years selected by multistage sampling. For this purpose, 6 middle schools were randomly recruited from male students in Nowshahr- Iran. Then, 140 students were randomly chosen for each the experimental and the control groups. After pretest, educational program based on Health Belief Model were performed in experimental group. Also, post-test was applied four months after interventional program in both experimental and control group.
Results: Based on the results, the prevalence of smoking was higher at age 14 old in both experimental (38.7%) and control (30 %) groups. About 35% of participants in the experimental group and 33.6% in control group had smoker father. Additionally, 10% in experimental group and 7.8% in control group had smoker mother. Most main cause for smoking in 57.9% of the experimental group and 52.63% of the control group was reducing anxiety. Results also shown that there was a significant difference between students in the experimental and control groups after performing educational program in the mean scores of perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, perceived self-efficacy, and preventive behaviors of smoking (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: By performing educational program, it was found that the prevalence of cigarette smoking was decreased in the intervention group. So, with a better understanding of factors affecting on this complex behavior (cigarette smoking), it can be a valuable phase to decrease rate of costs and improve adolescents' health outcomes.

Keywords