Effect of Distraction Technique and Hypnosis in Pain of Bone Marrow Aspiration in Children: a Narrative Review

Authors

1 Faculty Member at the Education Development Center (EDC), Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

2 School of Nursing and Midwifery Razi, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

3 Dentistry Student, Student Research Committee, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

4 BSc of Nursing, Student Research Committee, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Abstract

Background
The present review study provides specific evidence to assess the impact of distraction techniques and hypnosis on the pain of bone marrow aspiration in children.
Materials and Methods
This review study aimed to determine the effects of distraction techniques and hypnosis on the controlling pain of bone marrow aspiration in children. Internal databases (SID, Magiran, IranMedex and Irandoc), and international databases (Google-Scholar, Medline, PubMed, Elsevier, ProQuest, Springer and Web of Science), were searched by using the Mesh key words including "cancer", "bone marrow", "aspiration", "distraction", "hypnosis", "pain", "children" and "pediatric", with no time limit since the foundation of these databases until December 2016.
Results
In overall review of the articles, based on the issues expressed, the effect of most of various distraction interventions and hypnosis on the pain severity of children under the bone marrow aspiration procedure was significant and positive (P<0.05). Of course, pain severity variations in all studies, were different.
Conclusion
According to the results of the mentioned studies, we find that in order to reduce the pain of venipuncture in children most effectively, it is better that these techniques be done according to age and the children's mental and physical conditions.

Keywords