Comparison of Two Methods of Direct and Indirect Education on Osteoporosis Preventive Behaviors among Female Students

Authors

1 Master Student of Public Health, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medical Sciences, ShahidBeheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Associate Professor of Health Education and Health Promotion, Environmental and Occupational Hazards Control Research Center, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Background
Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease that decreases bone mass, causes destruction and eventually friability. This disease is preventable, and because adolescent females are the high-risk population, teaching this age group is of the utmost importance. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the two educational methods (Lecture and Pamphlet) on osteoporosis preventive behaviors among female students.
Materials and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial (RCT). To collect data, demographic questionnaire, food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and physical activity questionnaire were used. Subjects were 205 seventh-grade girls who were selected by multistage random method and allocated in two experimental (Lecture = 68, Pamphlet = 67) and 70 for control group. In the Lecture group, there were 5 sessions of training, each of which lasted 60 minutes. In the Pamphlet group, only educational pamphlets were given, and no interventions were performed in the control group. Data were analyzed through statistical software SPSS version 21.0. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, t-test and ANOVA were applied to analyze the data.
Results: The mean age of the students was 13 + 0.856 years old and there was no difference in terms of demographic variables between intervention and control groups. The results identified the mean scores of physical activity behaviors significantly improved two mounts after the intervention in the lecture group (P=0.001).While, the men scores of the pamphlet group had no significant changes after two months, but the differences of the both group compared to the control group were significant. Considering the significant decreased in the control group (P= 001). The mean scores of calcium intake in the two lecture and pamphlet groups significantly increased (P<0.001), while, as it was expected no significant changes in the control group after the intervention.
Conclusion: The osteoporosis preventive behaviors intervention improved the preventive behaviors of the participants. The results showed the effectiveness of education in both Pamphlet and Lecture group, because calcium intake and physical activity were significantly increased compared to pre-intervention and the control group.

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