Effect of Education Based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) on Anemia Preventive Behaviors among Iranian Girl Students

Authors

1 MSc in Health Education, Student Research Committee, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

2 Ph.D Student, Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 MSc in Medical Library and Information Sciences, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

4 MSc in Midwifery, Maragheh Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran.

5 MSc in Critical Care Nursing, Department of Nursing, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran.

6 PhD Student of Health Education and Promotion, Department of Health Education a Promotion, School of Public Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Abstract

Background
Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional problem and one of the main reasons of anemia especially in girls. This study was designed to determine the effect of combined educational inference based on HBM model about preventing iron deficiency anemia on the enhancement of knowledge, attitude and behavior of high school girls in the Faridan city of Isfahan province.
Materials and Methods: This quasi experiential study was conducted on 128 high school girls (divided into 64 cases and 64 controls) that was selected by the cluster random sampling method in 2015. The instrument of data collecting was a researcher-made questionnaire including demographic, knowledge, attitude, and behavior questions based on HBM model. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version16.0 software.
Results
The mean age of intervention and control groups were 16.3± 0.81 and 16.3± 0.66, respectively. The knowledge, attitude and behavior of control and intervention groups had no significant difference before the education (P>0.001). But three months after the education, the mean score of knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, perceived severity, perceived self-efficacy, cues to action and performance had significant difference (P<0.001).
Conclusion
Results of this research indicated that the education based on HBM model is effective on the enhancement of knowledge, attitude and behavior of students in the field of preventing iron deficiency anemia. So this pattern can be used as a framework for designing and performing education interventions to prevent iron deficiency anemia among high school girls.

Keywords