Evaluation of the Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) and Radiation Dose to the Radiosensitive Organs in Pediatric Pelvic Radiography


1 Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Student Research Committee, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

2 Department of Medical Physics and Radiology, School of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.


Patients' dosimetry is crucial in order to enhance radiation protection optimization and to deliver low radiation dose to the patients in a radiological procedure. The aim of this study was to assess the entrance surface dose (ESD) and radiation dose to the radiosensitive organs in pediatric pelvic radiography.
Materials and Methods
The studied population included 98 pediatric patients of both genders referred to anteroposterior (AP) projection of pelvic radiography. The radiation dose was directly measured using high radiosensitive cylindrical lithium fluoride thermo-luminescent dosimeters (TLD-GR200). Two TLDs were placed at the center point of the radiation field to measure the ESD of pelvis. Moreover for each patient, 2 TLDs were placed upon each eyelid, 2 TLDs upon each breast, 2 TLDs upon the surface anatomical position of the thyroid gland and finally 2 TLDs at the surface anatomical position of the gonads to measure the received dose.
The ESD ± standard deviation for AP pelvic radiography was obtained 591.7±76 µGy. Statistically significant difference was obtained between organs located outside and inside of the radiation field with respect to dose received (P<0.001), as well as between the average dose received by the breast and lens of the eyes (P<0.05). There was no difference between boys and girls with respect to average ESD, while the testes dose was statistically non-significantly lower than ovaries dose.
The ESD received by patients are relatively accordance to the international recommendations. However further reduction in patients' dose in achievable by adherence to the radiation protection optimization guidelines. The data presented in our study will serve as a baseline needed for deriving local reference doses for pediatric pelvic radiography in our hospital. The study is expected to increase the awareness of medical professionals about the radiation doses in pediatric pelvic radiography.