Evaluation of Dento-maxillofacial Changes in Pediatric ß-Thalassemia Major Patients in Northern Iran

Authors

1 Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Dental Faculty, Azad Dental School, Tehran, Iran.

2 Post Graduate, Dental Student’s Research Committee, Dental Faculty, Isfahan University of Medical Science, Isfahan, Iran.

3 Post Graduate Student, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental Faculty, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) branch, Isfahan, Iran.

Abstract

Background
Thalassemia is a group of congenital disorders which is characterized by a deficient synthesis of alfa or beta globulin chains in hemoglobin molecules. Due to the problems resulting from changes in face, especially in dento-maxillary regions, such patients require special attention regarding oral health. Thus in this study, we aimed to assess the dento-maxillofacial changes in Beta-thalassemia major (BTM) children and Adolescent patients in Northern Iran.
Methods 
BTM subjects aged 2-15 years and their systemically healthy controls were evaluated in this case-control study. Dento-maxillary changes (spacing, crowding, Posterior cross bite, open bite, deep bite, overjet), dental occlusion, and facial changes (maxillary protrusion, malar prominence, saddle nose and frontal bossing), were evaluated. Data was analyzed SPSS version 22.0.
Results
 There were 66 BTM patients and 66 healthy controls in this study, including 40.9% male and 59.1% females. The average age was 12 ±3.31years. Open bite (P<0.05), overjet (P<0.05) and all of the facial abnormalities (P<0.05) observed significantly more frequent in thalassemia patients, but there was no significant difference in dental occlusion status (P>0.05).
Conclusion
 With regarding to high prevalence of facial changes of BTM patients (57.6 %), preventive care, education and early dento-maxillofacial evaluation and management is advised.

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