Relationship between urinary reflux and nephrolithiasis in children- a cross-sectional study

Authors

1 Department of Pediatric Nephrology, School of Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Qom, Iran.

2 School of Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran AND Student Research Committee, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

3 Student Research Committee, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

4 Department of Pediatric Infectious Disease, School of Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Qom, Iran.

5 Pediatric Research Center, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

Abstract

Aim: Urinary reflux is a probable reason of nephrolithiasis among children. This study aimed to assess the relationship between urinary reflux and other reason of stone formation in children.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out with 199 children diagnosed with nephrolithiasis using ultrasonography. They were hospitalized in a referral children hospital in an urban area of in Iran. This study was conducted between 2014 and 2016. The presence of urinary reflux was assessed and graded by using the voiding cystourthrography modality.
Results: Overall, 83.9% of the children had normal conditions regarding urinary reflux, while 1.5% had reflux grade I, 5.5% reflux grade II, 8.1% reflux grade III, and 1% reflux grade IV with the total urinary reflux rate of 16.1%. The most prevalent observed clinical manifestation was irritability (45.2%) followed by fever (45.2%), and dysuria (19.6%). Also, no relationship was reported between the size of stones in both kidneys and the presence of reflux and its reflux. Furthermore, the size of stones in left and right kidneys was not related to hematuria, pyuria, and urinary tract infection.
Conclusion: Vesicoureteral reflux and kidney stones in children may have interdependent identities. Therefore, the presence of reflux may not be a decisive reason for the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis.

Keywords