Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Pediatrics Patients Newly Diagnosed with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease


1 School of Medicine, Ziaeian Hospital, International Campus, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

2 Child and Adolescent’s Medical Center, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

4 Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.

5 Deputy of Research, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.


Background: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is associated with a number of comorbidities in pediatrics. However, its association with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of ADHD in pediatric patients newly diagnosed with GERD.
Materials and Methods: Sixty newly-diagnosed treatment naive GERD patients and sixty healthy controls aging between 5 to 12 years referring to the Children and Adolescent’s medical center, Tehran, Iran were recruited in a case-control study during the year 2015. Then patients were evaluated for ADHD by a psychiatrist according to the DSM-IV criteria. The revised Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-R) was used for assessment of the symptoms of ADHD. To screen for psychiatry disorders other than ADHD, the Kiddie-Sads-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) questionnaire was used. Logistic regression analysis was used for modeling the association between GERD and ADHD in the study sample.
Results: The mean age of GERD patients was 5.77±2.27 and for non-GERD controls was 6.03±2.52 (P= 0.543). Thirty-three out of 60 (55%) GERD patients and 37 out of 60(61.66%) non-GERD controls were male (P: 0.579). Prevalence of ADHD was 33.60 (55%) in GERD patients and 10.60 (16.66%) in non-GERD (P<0.001). Data analysis revealed that being diagnosed with GERD was associated with higher odds of ADHD diagnosis (P<0.001; odds ratio [OR]: 6.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8-16.9).
Conclusion: According to the results, diagnosis of GERD was associated with higher odds of being diagnosed with ADHD.