Relationship of Spiritual Health and Perceived Stress with Breastfeeding Self-efficacy: A Survey on Mothers with Hospitalized Neonates


1 Associate Professor, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Department of Public Health, School of Health, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

2 MSc in Midwifery, Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

3 Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences. Urmia, Iran.

4 BSc Student in Midwifery, Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.


Introduction: Positive outcomes of breastfeeding on both mothers and neonates health are inevitable. Mother self-efficacy has a constructive role on initiating and continuing breastfeeding, in turn, it is influenced by several factors. The present study aimed to determine some risk factors associated with breastfeeding self-efficacy of mothers with hospitalized newborns.
Materials and Methods: This descriptive-correlational study was carried out on 150 eligible mothers who were selected from Motahhari Hospital of Urmia in 2016, using consecutive sampling. Data was collected using questionnaires such as Demographics, Paloutzian and Ellison the Spiritual Health Scale (PESHS), Cohen’s Perceived Stress (PSS), and Dennis Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale (BSEF). Descriptive (mean, standard deviation) and inferential statistics (ANOVA, Independent t-test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multiple regressions) were used to analyze the data in SPSS software under windows with version 16.
Results: The results showed that the mean and standard deviation of breastfeeding self-efficacy score were 128.95±17.84, respectively. The final multivariate regression model showed that the variables of spiritual health (P=0.01, β(r) =.208, t=2.54), perceived stress (P=0.03, β(r) = -.173, t=-2.18), and monthly income (P=0.01, β(r)=.214, t=2.55), had statistically significant relationships with breastfeeding self-efficacy. No significant relationships were observed between self-efficacy and other demographic variables (p>0.05).
Conclusion: The study suggests that breastfeeding self-efficacy of mothers was influenced by spiritual health, perceived stress, and economic status. Hence, it is recommended and emphasized that health care providers consider these factors in designing their health interventions regarding breastfeeding.