Cognitive Determinants of Influenza Preventive Behaviors among Students: an Application of the Health Belief Model (HBM)

Authors

1 Clinical Research Development Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

2 Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health, Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran

3 Abadan School of Medical Sciences, Abadan, Iran.

Abstract

Background
Recently, the prevalence of influenza threatening the society health; preventative strategies are effective method in reducing risk prevalence of influenza. The aim of this study was to determine the cognitive determinants of influenza preventive behaviors among high school students based on the Health Belief Model (HBM).
Materials and Methods
This cross-sectional study, conducted among 300 high school students (170 girls and 130 boys) in Southern of Iran. Students were randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. Participants filled out a standard self-administered questionnaire. Questionnaire included three sections including influenza preventive behaviors, demographics variables and HBM variables which comprised of 46 items. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 16.0).
Results
The mean score of influenza preventive behaviors was 14.66 [mean female: 15.42+ 4.93) and mean boy: 13.61+ 4.71)], ranged from 0 to 28.The HBM variables accounted for 23% of the variation in influenza preventive behaviors (Adjusted R squared=0.23, F=15.288 and P<0.001). The best predictor was self-efficacy (ß=0.358, P<0.001). Female student, and high level of parents education was a significant association with doing influenza preventive behaviors (P<0.05).
Conclusion
Based on our results, it seems that implementation of interventional programs to increase self-efficacy about influenza preventive behaviors may be usefulness of the results in order to promotion of influenza preventive behaviors.

Keywords