Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran AND Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Physiology Research Center and Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Valiasr Hospital, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.
Background: The prevalence of hepatitis B and C in Iranian children with chronic kidney disease is limited. Therefore, the present study intends to assess the prevalence of hepatitis B and C in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Method: The present study is a historical cohort study which was conducted in a window period of 25 years in Children’s Medical Center in Tehran, 1991-2016. Data (age, gender, duration of hemodialysis, kidney transplant, and severity of CKD) were extracted from hospital profiles of admitted patients. Infection with hepatitis B or C viruses was considered as primary outcome. At the end, results were reported as odds ratio (OR) with a confidence interval of 95 per cent (95% CI).
Results: Three hundred and fifty five children (50.1% boys, mean age of 54.5±89.0 months) were assessed. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C were detected in 9 (2.5%) and 5 (1.4%) children, respectively. Ten children had either hepatitis B or C infection with a prevalence of 2.8% (95% confidence interval: 1.4% to 5.1%). Multivariable analyses showed that association between the need for hemodialysis (OR=13.52; p=0.083) and severity of chronic kidney disease (OR=0.28; p=0.072) with incidence of hepatitis infection was borderline. However, risk of hepatitis B or C infection was 5.9-fold greater in girls compared to boys (OR=5.94; p=0.047).
Conclusion: The present study showed that the prevalence of hepatitis B and C were 2.5% and 1.4%, in children with chronic kidney disease, respectively. The prevalence of mentioned infections was significantly higher in girls compared to boys.