Children are not the instigators of armed conflicts, however, they are the ones who greatly suffer in various ways. Despite international efforts, we are still witnessing the violation of children's rights in armed conflicts. Given the significance of the issue, this study examines the effects of armed conflicts on children and how to protect them, especially the Syrian children. The findings of this paper show that the occurrence of war has different effects on human societies one of which is the vulnerability of children which has seriously concerned human rights institutions. In armed conflicts, the rights of children are flagrantly violated by the aggressors. Children do suffer a lot of harm tough they have no role in provoking and ending these conflicts and setting the rules. In Syria, even the basic rights of children are not respected and they are engaged in war as fighters and face detention and torture. Unfortunately, due to the special political interests of the states and powers, no proper action is taken to prosecute the violators. International authorities must play a powerful role in obligating the governments to defend and safeguard the rights of children in wars.