Background: Exosomes are among the factors whose importance has been shown in many diseases today. Recently, it has been shown that exosomes play an important role in the pathogenesis ...
Background: Exosomes are among the factors whose importance has been shown in many diseases today. Recently, it has been shown that exosomes play an important role in the pathogenesis of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR); however, few studies have been conducted in this regard.
Methods: The articles in this review study were retrieved from some databases including PubMed, Google scholar, and Scopus. All the included articles were in English, and those in other languages were excluded. Search keywords included IUGR, exosome, pathogenesis, Mechanism, Cell Signaling, Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Endothelial Dysfunction.
Results and conclusion: Studies have shown that exosomes contain factors, molecules and gene activators that affect molecular pathways regulation. These molecules play an important role in regulating inflammatory reactions, oxidative stress, and production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). The activation of these pathways can aggravate the clinical symptoms of IUGR. In addition, exosomes can impress induction or inhibition of endothelial dysfunction, which leads to the development of IUGR. Hence, identifying upstream and downstream pathways helps design therapeutic strategies to treat patients.