1 Department of Pediatric, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

2 Department of Pediatric, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

3 Allergy Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.


The popularity of probiotics is on the rise. Despite the beneficial effects of antibiotics, gastrointestinal health is at risk of diarrhea. This study aimed to investigate whether probiotic yogurt is of capability to prevent the incidence of diarrhea versus conventional yogurt.
Materials and Methods
This controlled, randomized, double-blind trial was designed to recruit 48 hospitalized children, whose treatments included different types of antibiotics. They were subsequently assigned into a 1:1 ratio into groups A and B at random. The first group was instructed to consume probiotic yogurt (Bifidobacterium strains and Lactobacillus acidophilus), while the second were on conventional yogurt (placebo containing Streptococcus thermophiles and Lactobacillus bulgaricus) at least for 7 days. The incidence of diarrhea, its onset and duration were compared between the two groups.
The findings indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups (p > 0.05). No significant decrease was observed in the incidence of diarrhea between the groups following adjustment for negative C-reactive protein (CRP) (p > 0.05).
According to the results, the consumption of yogurt, either probiotic or conventional, reduced the incidence, duration, and onset of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in pediatric population. This study showed no significantly better performance for probiotic yogurt than conventional yogurt.