Background: Neonatal mortality remains a public health concern in developing countries such as Burkina Faso. Improving the survival rate of newborns requires a good knowledge of the current situation. This study aimed at determining the risk factors for neonatal mortality in the Neonatology Department of Saint Camille Hospital of Ouagadougou (HOSCO - Hôpital Saint Camille de Ouagadougou).
Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective, descriptive and analytical study that included all newborns hospitalized in the neonatology department, at St Camille Hospital, in Burkina Faso from January 1 to December 31, 2017. Total of 710 records of hospitalized newborns in 2017 were analyzed. Among them our study focused on cases of death.
Results: The neonatology department registered 246 deaths out of 710 hospitalizations, representing a mortality rate of 34.6%, of whom 194 (78.8%) were preterm infants and 52 (11.2%) were term newborns. Among the deceased newborns, 88% had a low birth weight and the sex ratio was 0.8. November was the most fatal period (12.6%). Prematurity and respiratory distress were the main reasons for referral. Prematurity (76.4%), asphyxia (51.2%) and neonatal infection (27.2%) were the top 3 diagnoses at admission. The leading cause of death was respiratory distress (89.8%). All the newborns have been hospitalized within 24 hours of life and the average time to death in the unit was 3 days and 54% of deaths occurred within 72 hours of hospitalization.
Conclusion: Mortality rate is higher among preterm infants while it is relatively low among full-term newborns in our facility. Prematurity, asphyxia and neonatal infection remain the main risk factors associated with neonatal mortality.