The metabolic enhancement resulted from hyperglycemia in gestational diabetes leads to macrosomia, which can affect the placenta. In gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) pregnant women, the thickness of placenta and cord diameter can change at ages prior to treatment initiation. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the thickness of placenta and umbilical cord in mothers with gestational diabetes, compared to the control group, in order to indirectly investigate the effects of hyperglycemia on fetus.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, pregnant women in the gestational ages ranged 28-32 weeks, who underwent a 3-hour glucose test to detect gestational diabetes mellitus, were evaluated using ultrasound in terms of placenta thickness and umbilical cord area, compared to the control group.
Results: Out of 93 pregnant women in gestational ages of 28-32 weeks, 45 had gestational diabetes and 48 of them were selected as the control group. The mean age of the individuals was 26.33 years old with standard deviation of 4.88. There was a significant increase in the thickness of the placenta and the transverse diameter of the cord in the case group and there was a direct and significant relation (p <0.05). Also, there was a significant relationship between cord area and the thickness of placenta (p <0.05).
The thickness of placenta and consequently the cord area in mothers with gestational diabetes increases independently from changes caused by macrosomia and fetus weight.