Bronchiolitis, which is the most common infection of the lower respiratory tract among infants, is characterized by acute inflammation, edema, increased mucosal production, and bronchospasm. We aimed to investigate the effects of saline usage with different concentrations and salbutamol on the treatment.
Materials and Methods: This double-blind, randomized clinical trial was performed on 180 pediatric patients with four weeks to 24 months old admitted to Ali-Ibn-Aboutaleb Hospital in Zahedan, Iran, during 2017-18 for possible diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis. Patients were divided into three groups of 60 patients using the permissive block method. The first group received 0.15 mg of Salbutamol Nebulizer and 5 ml of normal saline 0.9%, the second group received saline 3%, and the third group received saline 5% at the same dose as the first group. Clinical status, oxygen saturation, respiratory and heart rate, intercostal retraction, dyspnea, wheezing before treatment and every 20 minutes after treatment up to 3 times, and Clinical Bronchiolitis Severity Score (CBSS) were collected.
Results: In all three groups, there was an increasing trend in oxygen saturation and a decrease in respiratory rate, heart rate, and CBSS. In the first and third groups, there was a significant difference in CBSS after treatment, but in the second group, it was significant only at 20 and 40 minutes after treatment. The mean days of admission for the second group were lower.
It seems that due to its cost-effectiveness, lack of complication and earlier efficacy of 5% hypertonic saline in the treatment of bronchiolitis, hypertonic saline 5% instead of normal saline 0.9% is more effective and more cost-beneficial achieved in bronchiolitis remedy.