MSc, Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, International Branch, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
PhD, Midwifery and Reproductive Health Research Center, Department of Midwifery and Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Associate Professor, Department of Basic sciences, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Developmental disorders are important in children, but there is not enough information regarding risk factors, and their effects on developmental disorders. We aimed to design a relational model and assess the relationship of mothers’ spiritual, social, and mental health and self-efficacy with child development.
Materials and Methods: The present analytical cross-sectional study enrolled 285 mothers with 18-month-old children through multistage sampling in health centers in Tehran, Iran. Mothers completed the following questionnaires in four months to collect the data: a demographic questionnaire, Paloutzian and Ellison’s Spiritual Health Scale, Keyes’ Social Health Scale, Goldberg’s mental health scale, Sherer’s Self-Efficacy Scale (SES), and the Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ).The data and theoretical Path Model were analyzed using SPSS software version 19.0 and LISREL software version 8.8.
Results: Developmental delay was observed in 21.8% (n=62) of children. Maternal spiritual health, both directly (β=0.35), and indirectly, had an increasing and positive effect on the children’s development through increasing social health, increasing self-efficacy and decreasing mental health score (β=0.206). Maternal social health, both directly (β=0.16), and indirectly, had an increasing and positive effect on the children’s development through increasing self-efficacy (β=0.0465). Maternal mental health had a direct and decreasing effect on the children’s development (β= -0.14), but mother’s self-efficacy had a direct and increasing effect on the children’s development (β= 0.31. The final path model was well-fitted (RMSEA=0.025, GFI=1, NFI=1).
Considering the results and the impact of factors such as spiritual, mental health, social health and self-efficacy on one another and the developmental delay in children, it appears necessary to screen for these factors for early diagnosis and intervention.