Background: Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a life-threatening problem that can be lethal in some cases. It usually occurs in children between 1–3 years old. Bronchoscopy is the best way for recognition, treatment and management of this problem. We aimed to evaluate the use of fiberoptic bronchoscopy after rigid bronchoscopy in foreign body aspiration in pediatric population.
Materials and Methods: 275 pediatric patients with a history of choking were entered to this cross-sectional study, from August 2015 to September 2018. The study was done in a Dr. Sheikh hospital, Mashhad, Iran. The age and gender of the patients were recorded individually. Rigid bronchoscopy was done for all patients. After that, fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed immediately or 72 hours after the first procedure based on the patients' symptoms, time and personnel conditions. Data were analyzed by the SPSS software version 16.0.
Results: Among 275 patients, 175 cases (63.6%) were male. The patients' age was 3 months to 15 years old. In rigid bronchoscopy, 85 cases had no foreign body and in 190 cases, foreign body was found. In 43 cases fiberoptic bronchoscopy found a residual organic material in spite of negative rigid bronchoscopy.The most residual organic material pertained to 0-3 year age group and the cases with residue in males were more than females. There was a significant difference between FBA and age and gender (p <0.001).
Conclusion: FBA in airway branches may not be seen by rigid bronchoscope due to the limited access to the distal branches. We suggest fiberoptic bronchoscopy as a complementary management along with rigid bronchoscopy to investigate distal branches, especially if the foreign body is soft in material.