Background: In recent decades, there has been an increase in the prevalence of bronchial asthma, in the difference in the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms detected by a continuous survey, and of bronchial asthma detected by the incidence rate. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of occurrence of asthma-like symptoms in schoolchildren of Khabarovsk and Khabarovsk rural area.
Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted between April 2018 and June 2019, and involved 696 school students at the age of 13 to 14 years old from Khabarovsk and Khabarovsk rural area, Russia. For the first time, the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms in adolescents in the Khabarovsk territory was determined by the standard continuous survey of ISAAC.
Results: Of the students surveyed, 345 were boys and 351 were girls. The prevalence of asthma-like symptoms among adolescents in the whole region according to ISAAC (17.9%) is 7.5 times higher than that revealed by the incidence rate (2.4%). The prevalence and severity of asthma-like symptoms in the Khabarovsk rural area is much higher (18.6%) than in Khabarovsk (17.6%), specifically, nocturnal dyspnea occurs 1.5 times more often (34.6% vs. 23.7%), shortness of breath causing difficulties in speech occurs 1.9 times more often (30.8% vs. 16.5%), distant wheezing during physical activity occurs 2.6 times more often (98,0% vs. 37,3%).
Conclusion: The level of asthma-like symptoms among adolescents in the Khabarovsk territory was the highest among the regions of Russia and significantly exceeds the level of nearby regions. It can be suggested that the atopic process in the bronchi, socio-economic factors and the availability of medical care have a greater impact on the frequency of asthma-like symptoms.