Sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome are the most important causes of death. Sepsis accounts for 20% of deaths worldwide and is one of the most common causes of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with a prevalence of 23%.
Sepsis-induced ARDS occurs among 10% of ICU patients. Today, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) therapy has been studied as a new treatment in the management of sepsis and as a promising treatment for ARDS. The aim of the present study was to systematically review studies on the use of MSCs for treatment of sepsis and ARDS.
The results of the search strategy include eight studies: one meta-analysis, three systematic reviews, one clinical trial, one cohort study, one combined cohort study, and a double-blind clinical trial, and one case report with a sample size of animal models from two meta-analyzes, and one systematic review of 1266 and 1326 animal models and 1,085 patients in human studies. The results of most studies indicated a significant relationship between mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) therapy and reduced mortality of sepsis syndrome and ARDS. The results of systematic studies also supported the efficacy and health of MSCs in the treatment of sepsis and ARDS. Patients tolerated high doses of intravenous or intrathecal therapy.
Multi-potency MSCs have an extraordinary ability to respond and manage the immune system and have been studied in animal and human studies as an immune regulatory tool in improving acute disease conditions such as sepsis and respiratory distress syndrome. Results of studies showed that these stem cells can be used clinically, but the need for more extensive studies, especially human studies in the future, is still recommended.