Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common skin disease in childhood, and Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the most common cause of food allergies in infancy and may be characterized by atopic dermatitis with skin involvement as the first finding. The aim of this study is to determine the serum eosinophil cationic protein (sECP) levels, eosinophil counts and the frequency of AD and other skin manifestation among infants with CMPA.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Karabük province, Turkey. Eighty-three infants who were diagnosed with CMPA and followed at the Karabük Training Hospital Pediatric outpatient clinic. The first group consisted of 52 infants presenting with skin manifestations. The second group consisted of 31 infants who were not presenting skin manifestations. The sECP level of infants in both groups was measured using an Immulite 2000 XPi analyzer Immunoassay System (Germany).
Results: Of 83 infants with CMPA, 62.6% (n=52) were detected skin involvement as the first finding. The proportions of atopic dermatitis and urticaria in CMPA infants with skin involvement were 90.4% and 9.6% respectively. The median sECP level and eosinophil counts (56.5 ng/mL vs 470/mm3, p-value=0.001), in skin manifestations with CMPA group were significantly higher than that in the CMPA group without skin manifestations (33.1 ng/mL vs. 270/mm3, p-value=0.006).
This study revealed that AD is the most common skin manifestation of CMPA and also found higher sECP levels in infants with skin involvement. The frequency of both diseases, which are easily treated with elimination diet, is increasing day by day.