Document Type : original article


1 Department of Clinical Psychology, Bushehr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bushehr, Iran

2 Department of Psychology, Semnan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Semnan, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education, Urmia University of Technology, Iran


Background: The present research aimed at comparing the effect of play therapy and selected sports exercises on self-confidence, physical self-efficacy and mental toughness in children.
Methods: This study followed a semi-experimental design. The statistical population included children aged 9 to 11 years. The participants included 60 children divided into one control (group 1) two experimental groups (groups 2, and 3), each comprising 20 individuals. Group 2 was under the training of play therapy and group 3 enjoyed selected sports exercises. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used for analyzing the data.
Results and Conclusion: It was found that there is a significant difference between the three groups in the average self-confidence, mental toughness, and physical self-efficacy. The influence of selected sports exercises on self-confidence, mental toughness and physical self-efficacy of children was revealed to be more than that of play therapy.


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