Author

Department of Sports Management, Esenyurt University, Istanbul, Turkey

Abstract

Background: The emotional bonds that develop between the coach-athlete and the athlete-athlete in team sports, such as loving each other, mutual trust, respect and appreciation, are effective in the success of the team. The individual's feeling of commitment to the team ensures that coaches and athletes maintain a good relationship. In order to increase the performance of the athlete, it is necessary to work together in a harmonious and motivated way. The aim of this study is to examine whether the group cohesion of adolescents who play team sports is related to social connectedness and general belonging variables and whether it is predicted by these variables.
Methods: This research is a relational study aiming to reveal whether group cohesion is predicted by general belonging and social connectedness levels in adolescents participating in team sports. A total of 344 athletes, 115 (33.4%) girls and 229 (66.6%) boys, from sports clubs competing in football, basketball and volleyball branches in Istanbul in the 2020-2021season participated voluntarily. Social Connectedness Scale-Revised (SCS-R), General Belongingness Scale and Group Environment Questionnaire were used in the study. Multiple linear regression was used in data analysis.
Results: When the results of the regression analysis are examined, it is seen that the general belonging and social connectedness variables are significant predictors of group cohesion in terms of their contribution to the variance. It is seen that the variables of general belonging and social connectedness explain 22% of the total variance. The variable that contributes the most to the model is the social connectedness variable.
Conclusion: The increase in the level of general belonging and social connectedness in adolescent individuals participating in team sports increases the group cohesion of individuals

Keywords

  1. Mullen B, Copper C, The lation between group cohesiveness and performance: An integration. Psychological Bulletin, 1994; 115, 210-227.
  2. Carron AV, Bray SR, Eys, MA, Team cohesion and team success in sport. Journal of Sport Sciences, 2002:20, 119-126.
  3. Carron AV and Hausenblas HA. Group dynamics in sport. Morgantown, WY: Fitness Information Technology, 1998.
  4. Weinberg RS and Gould DS, Foundations of sport and exercise psychology. Human Kinetics, 2014.
  5. Ocel H, and Aydin O. A validity and reliability study of the group environment questionnaire. Turkish Psychology Writings, 2006; 9(18), 19–32.
  6. Mudrack PE. Defining group cohesiveness: A legacy of confusion? Small Group Behaviour, 1991:21, 139-155.
  7. Lee RM, Draper M, and Lee S. Social connectedness, dysfunctional interpersonal Behaviours, and psychological distress: testing a mediator model. Journal of Counselling Psychology 2001: Vol. 48, No. 3, 310-318.
  8. Lee, RM and Robbins SB. Understanding social connectedness in college women and men. Journal of Counselling and Development, 2000:78, 484-491.
  9. Lee RM, Robbins SB, Measuring belongingness: The social connectedness and social assurance scales. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 1995: 42(2), 232–241.
  10. Lee RM, Robbins SB. The relationship between social connectedness and anxiety, self-esteem, and social identity (Editorial). Journal of Counselling Psychology, 1998:45(3), 338-345.

 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.45.3.338

  1. Baumeister RF, Leary MR. The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 1995: 117(3), 497–529.
  2. Hagerty BM, Lynch-Sauer J, Patusky KL, Bouwsema M, & Collier P. Sense of belonging: A vital mental health concept. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 1992: 6(3), 172–177.
  3. Marks HM. Student Engagement in Instructional Activity: Patterns in the Elementary, Middle, and High School Years. American Educational Research Journal, 2000:37, 153-184.http:// dx.doi.org/10.3102/00028312037001153.
  4. Wentzel KR. Relations of social goal pursuit to social acceptance, classroom behaviour and perceived social support. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1994: 86 (2), 173–182. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.86.2.173.
  5. Wentzel KR, Caldwell K. Friendships, peer acceptance, and group membership: Relations to academic achievement in middle school. Child Development, 1997: 68(6), 1198–1209. https://doi.org/10.2307/1132301.
  6. DeRosier M, Kupersmidt JB and Patterson JC. Children's academic and behavioural adjustment as a function of the chronicity and proximity of peer rejection. Child Development 1994: Vol. 65, No. 6 1799-1813.
  7. Erkus A. Scientific research process for behavioural sciences. Ankara: Seckin Publishing House, 2011.
  8. Malone GP, Pillow DR, & Osman A. The general belongingness scale (GBS): assessing achieved belongingness. Personality and Individual Differences, 2012: 52(3), 311- 316.
  9. Duru E. The Psychometric Properties of the General Belongingness Scale: A Study of Reliability and Validity Turkish Journal of Psychological Counselling and Guidance 2015, 5 (44), 125-135.
  10. Sahin EE, and Duy B. Social connectedness scale-revised (SCS-R): validity and reliability studies. Anadolu Journal of Educational Sciences International, 2021: 11(2), 588-608. https://doi.org/10.18039/ajesi.801934
  11. Koklu N, Buyukozturk S, & Bokeoglu- Cokluk O. Statistics for the social sciences. Ankara: Pegem Publishing, 2007.
  12. Field A. Discovering Statistics Using SPSS. 3rd Edition, Sage Publications Ltd., London, 2009.
  13. Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.), Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2013.
  14. Widmeyer WN, Williams J. Predicting cohesion in coacting teams. Small Group Research, 2001: 22, 548-557.
  15. Murray N. The differential effect of team cohesion and leadership behaviour in high school sports. Individual Differences Research, 2006:4(4), 216-225.
  16. Dhurup M, Reddy L. Social and task cohesion and the relationship with team sport satisfaction and academic performance among a first year university cohort: social psychology. African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance, 2013:19(2):381-393.
  17. Turman, PD. Coaches and cohesion: the ımpact of coaching techniques on team cohesion in the small group sport setting. Journal of Sport Behaviour, 2003: 26(1):87- 104.
  18. Carron AV, Brawley LR. “Cohesion: conceptual and measurement issues”. Small Group Research, 2000: 31 (1), 89-108.
  19. Mullen B, Copper C. The relation between group cohesiveness and performance: an integration. Psychological Bulletin, 1994: 115, 210-227.
  20. Carron, AV, Coleman MM, Wheeler J.Cohesion and performance in sport: a meta-analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2002: 24, 168-188.
  21. Aydin F. The relationship between self-efficacy and cohesion perceptions of professional women's and men's football teams in Ankara (Master's thesis). Ankara University Institute of Health Sciences, Ankara, 2018.
  22. Durdubas D. Determining the effect of team building intervention applied through team goal setting during a season on team cohesion and motivational climate (Master's thesis). Hacettepe University Institute of Health Sciences, Ankara, 2013.
  23. Erbektas E. Investigation of the effect of personality traits and team cohesion interaction on athlete satisfaction (Master's thesis). Abant Izzet Baysal University Social Sciences Institute, Bolu, 2018.
  24. Kocaeksi S. Time change in handball women's national team and group clinginess of performance, sportive self-confidence, self-efficacy, goal orientation and competition anxiety, (PhD Thesis). Hacettepe University Institute of Health Sciences, Ankara, 2010.
  25. Micoogulları BO. Effects of 6 weeks psychologıcal skıll traınıng on team cohesıon, self-confıdence & anxıety: a case of youth basketball players. The Graduate School of Social Sciences of Middle East Technical Unıversıty, a Thesis Submitted To, 2013.
  26. Ocel H. A model proposal on the causes of organisational citizenship and anti-production work behaviour of employees (PhD thesis). Ankara University Institute of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Ankara, 2009.
  27. Simsek V. Investigation of the relationship between group cohesion and life satisfaction of 2nd League female volleyball players (Master's thesis). Istanbul, Marmara University Institute of Health Sciences, 2018.
  28. Toros T. Analysis of the difference between perceived coaching behaviour, goal orientation, team cohesion, perceived motivational climate and collective efficacy in young male basketball players before and after the tournament. Pamukkale Journal of Sports Sciences, 2011: 2:27-39.
  29. Eys MA, Jewitt E, Evans MB, Wolf S, Bruner MW & Loughead TM. Coach Initiated motivational climate and cohesion in youth sport. Research quarterly for exercise and sport, 201384(3), 373-383. Doi:10.1080/02701367.2013.814909
  30. Nascimento JR, Silva AA. Granja, C. T. L, Oliveira, DV. Batista, RPR, Fortes, L.S. Do sporting experiences predict team cohesion in youth athletes? Cuadernos de Psicologíadel Deporte, 2019:19(3), 102-112.
  31. Yıldırım M, Tanrıverdi FC. Social support, resilience and subjective well-being in college students. Journal of Positive School Psychology, 2020: 5(2), 127-137.
  32. Nitschke JP, Forbes PA, Ali N, Cutler J, Apps MA, Lockwood PL, Lamm C. Resilience during uncertainty? Greater social connectedness during COVID‐19 lockdown is associated with reduced distress and fatigue. British Journal of Health Psychology, 2021: 26(2), 553-569.
  33. Williamson I, Sandage SJ, & Lee RM. (How social connectedness affects guilt and shame: Mediation by hope and differentiation of self. Personality and Individual Differences, 2007: 43(8), 2159-2170.
  34. Reyes MES, Davis, RD, Chua CAP. Q, Olavarria GL, Pamintuan LJE el. at. Relative importance of social support and social connectedness as protective factors of suicidal ideation among selected Filipino late adolescents. Suicidology Online, 2020: 11(1).
  35. Arslan G. Psychological maltreatment, social acceptance, social connectedness, and subjective well-being in adolescents. Journal of Happiness Studies, 2018: 19(4), 983-1001.
  36. Cicek I. Effect of hope on resilience in adolescents: social support and social connectedness as mediators. Journal of Positive School Psychology, 2021: Vol. 5, No. 2, 136-147.
  37. Kaczynski AT & Glover TD. Talking the talk, walking the walk: examining the effect of neighbourhood walkability and social connectedness on physical activity. Journal of Public Health, 2012: 34 (3), 382–389.
  38. Paiva AF, Cunha1 C, Voss1 G, and Matosl AD. The interrelationship between social connectedness and social engagement and its relation with cognition: a study using SHARE data. Social Sciences, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal, 2021.
  39. Lee RM, and Robbins SB. The relationship between social connectedness and anxiety, self-esteem, and social identity (Editorial). Journal of Counselling Psychology, 1998:45(3), 338–345.
  40. Duru E. The predictive analysis of adjustment difficulties from loneliness, social support, and social connectedness. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 2008: 8(3), 849-856.
  41. Parr EJ, Shochet IM, Cockshaw, WD, Kelly RL. General Belonging is a Key Predictor of Adolescent Depressive Symptoms and Partially Mediates School Belonging. School Mental Health, 2020: 12, 626–637. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-020-09371-0.
  42. Deci E, Ryan RM. Self-determination theory and the facilitation of ıntrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist 2000: 55(1):68-78. DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68.
  43. Chipuer CH. Dyadic attachments and community connectedness: Links with youths loneliness experiences. Journal of Community Psychology, 2001: 29 (4), 429-446.
  44. Duru E. Adaptation of Social Connectedness Scale to Turkish culture. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research (EJER), 2007: .26, 85-94.
  45. Andersen S, Chen S, Carter C. Fundamental human needs: Making social cognition relevant. Psychological Inquiry, 2000: 11(4), 269– 318.
  46. Arıcıoglu A, and Gultekin F. Social support perceptions of mothers with disabled children: roles of psychological counsellors. Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 2017: (42), 1-26.