Pediatrics Health Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
Background: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic disorder that can cause microvascular and macrovascular damages in the long term as well as higher rates of mortality and morbidity in infectious diseases such as Covid-19. It has been discovered that the homeostasis of trace electrolytes like magnesium plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its related complications. We aimed to determine serum magnesium levels in children with T1DM in northwest Iran and to evaluate the relationship between serum magnesium levels and glycemic control while also assessing several anthropometric and birth-time-related factors.
Methods: This cross-sectional study gathered data from 50 patients with T1DM and 50 other healthy subjects matched for age and gender living in the northwest area of Iran. These children were tested during their visits to the children’s hospital of Tabriz. Magnesium levels and environmental factors were measured in all study subjects.
Results: We found magnesium levels to be significantly lower in children with T1DM (p < 0.001). Hypomagnesemia was also seen in 58% of the case group, which was significantly more prevalent than the 6% in the control group (p <.001). We observed a negative correlation between serum magnesium and HbA1c levels in the diabetic group (r = -0.882, p <.001). No significant correlation was found between magnesium levels and duration of diabetes, age, and gender.
Conclusion: We concluded that total serum magnesium is lower in children with T1DM, which correlates with glycemic control. Further and more extended studies should be conducted to assess the effect of correction of serum magnesium in diabetic children with hypomagnesemia on glycemic control and the risk of diabetic complications.
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