Background: The factors affecting children’s growth and development have been discussed in various research studies. This study evaluates the association between growth and development of under 12-month-old children in Iran.
Methods: This cross-sectional study uses the Ages & Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) data and demographic characteristics in the child's health records of 15,885 Iranian children in Arak city up to March 2017. The impact of growth disorder, type of delivery, preterm birth, at birth weight/height/head circumference, gross motor, problem-solving, personal-social, communication, and fine motor on the participants’ head circumference/weight/height was assessed. Unadjusted analyses were done using independent sample t-test, Pearson correlation test and one-way analysis of variance. Multiple multivariate regression was utilized for adjusted effects. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Results: Head circumference was associated with growth disorder, type of delivery, and preterm birth. Children with known and unknown growth disorders had 610.19 and 160.58 grams less weight than those without any growth disorder. Gross motor and personal-social aspects of ASQ were found to be associated with weight at the age of 12-month old. Height at 12-months was affected by growth disorder, gross motor, personal-social, communication, and fine motor.
Conclusion: Results of this study show that cesarean type of delivery, preterm birth, and low birth weight are the impacting factors associated with negative children growth trends and lower developmental status at the age of 12 months.